Islamski versko kulturni center,

Ljubljana
(mednarodni natečaj 2011)

Islamska verska skupnost želi z izgradnjo Islamskega verskega in kulturnega centra (IVKC) po več desetletjih dobiti ustrezne prostore za svoje delovanje in obenem opozoriti nase z arhitekturno prisotnostjo v javnem prostoru sicer tradicionalno krščanske Ljubljane. IVKC naj ne bi postal vase zaprt in od okolice izoliran kompleks, temveč odprto in dostopno središče strpnega spoznavanja ter dialoga med dvema kulturama.

Sožitje lokalnega in islamskega je zato simbolno prisotno že v urbanistični kompoziciji. Gre za preplet značilne ljubljanske ulične mreže, pravokotne in orientirana proti severu, ki ji sledi pravilen raster stavbne konstrukcije in zasaditve v parku, ter svete islamske smeri proti Meki, proti kateri so zasukani prostori za verske obrede.

Za razliko od običajnih trdnjavsko zaprtih islamskih verskih centrov je zasnova odprta in transparentna, postavljena v park, kjer zunanji prostor brez funkcionalno motečih višinskih preskokov prehaja v notranjega. Tako celoten javni park postane predprostor IVKC, območje zbiranja in interakcije, in se neposredno povezuje z odprtim in prehodnim prostorom pritličja v notranjosti. Iz zunanjosti se v notranjost podaljša tudi raster dreves – zunaj so uporabljene akacije, znotraj stavbe pa pomarančevci.

Zaradi svoje razsežnosti in zakonitosti dane lokacije, pa tudi zaradi funkcionalnih razlogov in fleksibilnosti, sta v IVKC predvidena dva glavna vhoda, s severa in z juga. Pred vsakim vhodom je večja parkovna površina z drevesi v tlaku, ki se uporablja kot zasenčen trg.

Pri arhitekturni zasnovi stavbe so bile tradicionalne značilnosti in zahteve islamske sakralne arhitekture modernizirane in prilagojene evropskemu kulturnemu okolju. Stavbne gmote so preprosti prizmatični volumni, oblečeni v mrežo jeklenih profilov, ki na sodoben način interpretirajo tradicionalne islamske geometrijske vzorce. Polja med profili so glede na program v notranjosti transparentna ali zapolnjena z izolacijskimi paneli z zunanjo plastjo iz belega marmorja, kar ustvarja podobo kamnite inkrustacije. V delu stavbe, kjer se nahaja kulturni center, je v skladu z živahnim dogajanjem v notranjosti uporabljen bolj ekspresiven vzorec, na fasadi molilne dvorane pa umirjen ortogonalni raster.

Prostorska zasnova IVKC se opira na islamsko tradicijo – na znamenito Mezquito, nekdanjo mošejo v Cordobi, z obširnim stebriščem, v sredini katerega se odpre prostor gotske krščanske katedrale. Na podoben način je v ljubljanskem IVKC celotno pritličje veliko odprto stebrišče, ki se na južnem delu odpre v visok prostor osrednje molilne dvorane. Pot skozi stavbo vodi iz nižjih prostorov v višje in obiskovalca mentalno pripravi na versko doživetje.

Prekritje celotnega programa s streho izhaja iz zahtevnejših klimatskih razmer ter splošnega trenda, da se aktivnosti s prostega vedno bolj selijo v notranje prostore, ki so ob vsakem času mnogo bolj uporabni, fleksibilni in prijazni. Z dobrim načrtovanjem se pri tem ohranjajo prednosti zunanjih prostorov, kot so transparentnost, zračnost, osončenost in ozelenitev. Gledano ekonomsko je zasnova s celovito fasadno opno zaradi njene manjše površine tudi cenejša pri izvedbi in energetsko varčnejša pri obratovanju. Streha nad osrednjim delom pokritega dvorišča je premična in se lahko ob lepih dneh popolnoma odpre. Nudi tudi velike možnosti za izkoriščanje sončne energije, kar skupaj z geotermalnimi toplotnimi črpalkami pod parkom omogoča obratovanje stavbe z viškom energije.

V severnem delu stavbe, visokem 12m, so znotraj stebrišča razporejeni programi kulturnega centra. V pritličju so po načelu odprtega tlorisa umeščeni paviljoni z javnim programom: knjigarna z info točko, restavracija in družabni prostori. Nad njimi pod stekleno streho lebdijo tri racionalno organizirane dvonadstropne lamele s pedagoškim, pisarniškim in stanovanjskim programom. Večja programska volumna avditorija in športne dvorane, ki bi preveč utesnila omejen prostor na nivoju terena, sta locirana pod teren, ob podzemno garažo s tremi parkirnimi nivoji. Pritličje tako ostane odprto, fleksibilno in pretočno. Nasad pomarančevcev v notranjosti se navezuje na arabske parkovne ureditve in obogati ambient z aromatičnimi in na pogled prijetnimi sadeži.

V južnem delu se prostor v celoti odpre do steklene strehe in tvori pokrito dvorišče, sodobno različico ograjenega dvorišča pred tradicionalnimi džamijami. Okoli njega je razporejena skupina kubusov z verskim programom. Paviljona z moško in žensko umivalnico oddelita verski del IVKC od kulturnega centra na severni strani. Ob jugovzhodni stranici je proti Meki orientirana velika osrednja molilna dvorana, oblikovana kot steklena kocka s stranico 24m. Z volumnom izrazito izstopa iz nižjega dela stavbe s stebriščem. Na ta način se v zunanjem prostoru, v najbolj izpostavljenih vizurah z južne strani, pojavi v vsej svoji velikosti. V notranjosti je kot simbol nebesnega svoda pod strop obešena velika polkrožna kupola. Na belo prosojno platno kupole se podnevi z zunanje strani rišejo spreminjajoči se vzorci naravne svetlobe in sence, ponoči pa se lahko nanjo z notranje strani projicirajo različni, trenutku primerni barvni ornamenti.

Ob molilni dvorani sta dva manjša sakralna kubusa. V večjem so prostori za pogrebno obredje, v manjšem pa prostor za itikjaf. Celotno skupino sakralnih kubusov v širšem prostoru označuje 40m visok minaret. Kot najbolj izrazit in prepoznaven arhitekturni element je tudi minaret preprosta kvadratna prizma, skladna z oblikovanjem celote. Zaradi neposredne bližine industrijskih objektov se namenoma izogne tradicionalni valjasti obliki in nevarni podobnosti s tovarniškim dimnikom.


 
The Islamic religious society aims to build an Islamic religious and cultural center (IRCC) to provide the necessary space for its activities and gain more attention through architectural presence in the public realm of traditionally Christian city of Ljubljana. The goal is that IRRC would not become a closed and introverted building complex, but rather an open and accessible place of tolerant mutual understanding and dialog between two cultures.

A symbiotic coexistence of local and Islamic is symbolically firstly present in the very urban composition. The typical north-west rectangular street grid of Ljubljana is reflected in the rectangular structural grid of the new building and in the tree pattern in the park, and is interwoven with the sacred Islamic direction towards Mecca, to which the spaces for religious service are oriented.

In contrast with traditional introverted Islamic religious centers, a more extroverted and transparent scheme is proposed. The building is located in a park, with the exterior extending into the interior without any functionally disturbing changes of floor level. That way, the public park in front of the IRCC serves as place of gathering and interaction, directly connected to the fluid and open common space in the interior. To emphasize this continuity, even the grid of the newly planted trees continues in the interior, only the type of trees changing from the acacia in the outside to orange trees in the inside.

Due to its size, functional reasons and specifics of the site, the IRCC has two main entrances, a northern and a south one. In front of each entrance is a larger park with trees in the pavement, used as a shaded square.

Through the design of the building, the principles and demands of traditional Islamic architecture were adapted to the contemporary European cultural environment. Building consists of simple prismatic volumes, enwrapped in a net of steel beams, reinterpreting the traditional Islamic geometrical patterns. The openings are closed regarding the requirements of the interior, with either transparent glass or isolative panels with an outer layer of white marble, giving an impression of stone inlay. In the part of the building where the cultural center is located, a more expressive pattern is used, reflecting a lively atmosphere inside, whereas a calm rectangular pattern is applied on the facade of the prayer hall.

The spatial scheme of IRCC reflects the Islamic tradition – the famous Mezquita in Cordoba, Spain, a former mosque with an extensive interior colonnade in the middle of which a gothic Christian cathedral is inserted, opening up the space. Similarly, the entire ground floor of IRCC is a vast colonnade, which in the southern part opens up to the high space of the central prayer hall. Path through the building leads from lower spaces to higher space, mentally preparing the visitor for a religious experience.

Due to more demanding climate conditions and a general trend of moving activities from outside into interior spaces, which are more useful, flexible and friendly at any time and weather, the entire program is enclosed within a comprehensive building envelope. With good planning, all the advantages of open space, such as transparency, openness, insolation and greenery can be preserved. From economic point of view such design is also more energy efficient and cheaper to construct, because of its smaller surface. The glass roof above the central part of the covered court is movable and can be opened on warm days. It also presents great potential for the use of solar energy, which, together with the geothermal heath pumps, would enable the building to operate even with a surplus of energy.

The cultural center is located within the colonnade of the 12m high northern part of IRCC. The ground floor is organized as open plan space with pavilions hosting public facilities (bookstore with info point, restaurant and a room for social events). Above, three double storey longitudinal building volumes with offices, classrooms and residential units hover under the glass roof. To preserve as much open floor area as possible, the large volumes of auditorium and sports hall are located underground, along with the three storey parking garage. That way the entire ground floor becomes a flexible and fluid open space. The aromatic and visually pleasant fruit of the orange trees enriches the inside atmosphere, reflecting the traditional Arabic gardens.

In the southern part the space opens up to the full height of 12 m, forming a covered inner courtyard – a modern, glass-covered variation of the enclosed courtyards of traditional mosques. Around it, a group of pavilions with religious facilities is arranged. The pavilions with male and female ablution areas separate this part from the rest of the building. The main prayer hall lies on the south-east, within a 24-meter side glass cube facing towards Mecca. Its volume clearly rises out of the lover part of the building, fully exposing itself to the main views from the south-east. Inside, a light textile dome is suspended from the ceiling as a symbol of the celestial sphere. During the day, changing patterns of shadows and natural light are drawn on the white translucent fabric of the dome, while during the night various color ornaments can be projected on it from the inside.

Next to the prayer hall, two smaller religious pavilions are located, one with funeral facilities and the other with space for I’tikaf, Islamic ritual retreat and fasting. The entire group of religious pavilions is marked with a 40-meter minaret. Minaret, being the most characteristic architectural element, is a simple square prism, consistent with the design of the whole. Because of a close vicinity of industrial buildings it intentionally avoids the traditional cylindrical form and a dangerous similarity with a factory chimney.